Cyberbullying, which is a scourge within modern society, consists of assaulting and mistreating victims via new technologies, causing serious damage. In this study, we shall analyse the prevalence of cyberbullying according to gender, education centre, and academic year in two education centres of Spain. The sample was comprised of 227 Spanish primary and secondary school students. A non-experimental study, ex post facto, was conducted as a descriptive study by way of single measurement within a single group. The Cyberbullying Test has been adopted as the main instrument for the study. The statistical analysis was carried out by way of IBM software SPSS® 22.0. The internal reliability of the instruments used was analysed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The results reveal that the cyberbullying conduct that is most perpetrated, suffered, and witnessed by adolescents is the sending of offensive and insulting messages, that girls are more often the victims, and that during early adolescence, the cases of cyberbullying increase with the age of the adolescents. We consider that humanistic education is the remedy for helping to reduce the cases of bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents.
The post-truth world is one in which the US President, in his first 100 days, reportedly misrepresented the truth almost 500 times. His administration has used phrases such as “alternative facts” and is known for “gaslighting” (the act of confusing and destabilizing an audience through persistent lying, misdirection, and contradiction). Much of this discourse has taken place on multi-billion-dollar social media platforms which profit from the spread of fake news and from which the illusion of a mass following is monetized, as the New York Times reported. This essay examines the issue of “post-truth” through two entertainment paradigms: a) reality entertainment, comprising citizen performance in news, social/new media, and reality television; and b) artistic performance in traditionally scripted drama. The aim is to compare the understanding and exploration of truth in both types of performance, linking the possibility of truth in drama to the ethical dimension of what is represented, and the level of critical freedom stemming from the dialogue created by the performance. Such “productive searches for truth” will be juxtaposed against the technological apparatus of modern dramatic forms in news, television, and online content, to establish how the loss of faith in truth is tied up in new trends of representation.
Edgar Allan Poe enjoys an enduring legacy in the United States, with historical landmarks connected to his penmanship and adaptations of his works continuing to appear in print and on screen. Poe proclaims his quest for “originality” in his work “Philosophy of Composition,” and his creative genius empowers him to traverse traditional social and national constraints. Unlike his pro-slavery contemporaries and the Abolitionists, his fiction and poetry introduce racial discourse with subtle discretion and unique autonomy. His gripping command over the literary genre of mystery intertwines the antebellum historical context of race relations into horror stories; cloaked in his ambivalent symbols are the heightened fears of racial violence and rebellion promoted by the institutions of slavery and colonial hegemony. Inspired by his own experience as an orphan and dispossessed child in a patriarchal society, Poe sets up vivid contrasts between the powerful and the disempowered. His plots are layered with allegorical mechanisms and dark images that encapsulate racial diversity and interracial entanglements of his time. Poe’s prophetic vision encompasses the haunting influence of disenfranchised populations and the imminent transformation of the cultural landscape for future generations, giving relevance to his works in the twenty-first century on questions of race relations and social justice.